Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (IHES) is one of a group of intrinsic pulmonary eosinophilic syndromes that are idiopathic in nature. Aggressive therapies can include busulfan, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporin-A, etoposide, azathioprine, hydroxyurea, vincristine, or interferon alfa. Imatinib is used in myeloproliferative IHES.

Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) often involves risk of pancreatic anastomotic leakage. To perform a safe and reliable pancreaticoenteric anastomosis with minimal leakage, most surgeons rely on binding pancreaticojejunostomy–also known as Whipple’s procedure.